Combating Misinformation and Fake News with Fine-Tuned LLMs

January 21, 2024

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Sapien AI

Misinformation and fake news have become major societal problems in recent years. The rise of social media has enabled the rapid spread of false or misleading content, sometimes with dangerous consequences. Large language models (LLMs) like GPT-3 have shown promise in helping to combat misinformation, but also pose risks if not thoughtfully implemented. Here's how LLMs can be applied to detect and mitigate misinformation, while considering the nuances of this challenging issue.

Using LLMs for Fact-Checking and Evidence-Based Reasoning

LLMs have demonstrated an impressive ability to reason about facts and evidence. Research from Anthropic, Allen Institute for AI, and others has shown that LLMs can identify factual inconsistencies, assess the veracity of claims based on evidence, and provide rationales for their conclusions. This capability stems from LLMs' training on massive datasets, giving them substantial world knowledge.

Specifically, LLMs can help automate and improve fact-checking in a few key ways:

  • Claim verification - Given a claim, determine its truthfulness by searching for contradictory or corroborating evidence from trustworthy sources.
  • Citing sources - When making judgments about claims, provide relevant citations to justify conclusions. This improves transparency.
  • Identifying inconsistencies - Recognize when separate statements or pieces of evidence contain contradictory information.
  • Assessing quality of evidence - Judge the credibility of different sources and facts based on features like author expertise and data recency.
  • Probabilistic reasoning - Rather than binary true/false conclusions, give a confidence score that assesses the likelihood a claim is true based on the evidence.

Researchers must continue developing techniques to make LLMs tribunal, honest, and helpful fact-checking partners. But their advanced reasoning capabilities show promise in combating the scourge of internet falsehoods.

Mitigating Misinformation Amplification

Another major problem exacerbated by social media is misinformation amplification. Even if false claims are surfaced, platforms' algorithms often end up recommending them widely before fact-checks restrain their spread. This results in misinformation reaching huge audiences.

LLMs could help reduce amplification in a few ways:

  • Rating potential for harm - Given a claim, estimate the possible adverse societal affects if it went viral before being debunked. Claims determined as likely false and highly viral could then be disabled or flagged.
  • Slowing spread - Temporarily limit reach and virality for claims deemed probable misinformation until they can be properly fact-checked. This "slows down" amplification.
  • Directions for review - Bring suspect content to human fact-checkers' attention faster by flagging probable misinformation.
  • Balancing recommendations - Platforms' recommendation engines could balance false claims by also suggesting related fact-checks or verified information to lessen biased perspectives.

Thoughtfully building these capabilities into social platforms could significantly reduce the metastasis of misinformation, while still allowing free expression.

Challenges and Considerations

While LLMs have huge potential for combating fake news, we must acknowledge the difficulties and nuances involved:

  • Bias - Like humans, LLMs can propagate biases. Careful training, auditing, and oversight is required to maximize fairness.
  • Evolving nature of truth - Facts and evidence continually change. LLMs must update beliefs accordingly and not become entrenched.
  • Limited knowledge - There are infinite claims, but LLMs have finite training. Their capabilities will be bounded.
  • Arms race - Those generating misinformation will evolve new tactics as LLMs advance. Continued progress and research are essential.
  • Over-reliance - LLMs should augment, not replace, human fact-checkers. We must understand their limitations.

Training Datasets for Misinformation Detection

High-quality training data is crucial for building accurate misinformation-detecting models. Some promising datasets that can be leveraged include:

FEVER - The Fact Extraction and VERification dataset contains 185,000 claims manually labeled as Supported, Refuted, or NotEnoughInfo based on evidence extracted from Wikipedia.

MultiFC - The Multi-FC dataset has 300,000 claims labeled by professional fact-checkers and linked to fact-checks from sites like Snopes and PolitiFact.

FakeNewsNet - This dataset contains data on the propagation networks of fake vs real news on social media, helpful for understanding virality.

Researchers can leverage these diverse datasets to train models on recognizing textual patterns in false claims, searching verified sources for refuting evidence, and predicting how claims spread. Continually expanding and diversifying training data will improve model robustness.

Algorithmic Approaches to Probabilistic Fact-Checking

Since fact-checking is often complex and nuanced, binary true/false conclusions can be problematic. Probabilistic approaches enable more nuanced analysis:

Bayesian inference - By preprocessing claims to extract meaningful semantic features, models can compare new claims to observed evidence and output a probabilistic veracity score.

Attention mechanisms - Attention layers allow models to emphasize key words and phrases that provide insight into a claim's factualness based on its similarity to other verified or falsified claims.

Crowdsourcing - Aggregating the judgments of a diverse pool of human assessors can generate robust wisdom-of-the-crowds veracity probabilities.

Confidence calibration - Various techniques like Platt Scaling can calibrate neural network outputs into well-formed probability estimates that accurately reflect model certainty.

Outputting calibrated probabilities rather than binary predictions allows more thoughtful weighting of evidence and thoughtful decisions by downstream consumers.

Optimizing Social Platform Algorithms to Reduce Amplification

Major platforms are often accused of optimizing for engagement over veracity. But algorithmic levers exist to reduce amplification:

Rate limit sharing - Temporarily preventing re-sharing could slow virality enough for fact-checking, especially for uncertain claims.

Disable virality prediction - Don't recommend probable misinformation just because a model predicts it will be highly shared.

Penalize untrustworthy sources - Downrank content from accounts with histories of sharing misinformation.

Reward transparency - Boost content where original sources are cited and methodology is detailed.

Diversify recommendations - Suggest alternative viewpoints and high-quality information alongside questionable claims.

Highlight fact-checks - Proactively provide fact-checks alongside currently trending dubious claims.

Balancing openness, free speech, and public safety when optimizing algorithms is challenging. But platforms are not powerless in mitigating harms.

Responsibly leveraging the strengths of LLMs to combat misinformation will require continued research, transparency, and thoughtful regulation. But the stakes are too high to not pursue progress. With diligence and wisdom, we can build more just and informed information ecosystems.

Bring LLMs to Their Full Potential with Sapien

As we've explored, leveraging LLMs has a lot of potential for identifying misinformation and improving online discourse. Yet realizing this potential requires meticulous, unbiased data labeling and model training. That's where Sapien comes in. Sapien provides end-to-end services for creating optimized, ethical LLMs tailored to specific use cases. Our global network of domain experts ensures your models get the perfectly-labeled data they need for maximum capabilities with minimal bias. Whether you're a social platform looking to deploy LLMs ethically or a researcher pushing the boundaries of what's possible, Sapien has the data labeling expertise to fuel your success. So let's work together to create a future where LLMs enhance wisdom, fairness and truth. Reach out to Sapien today to learn more and book a demo.